What to Say and How to Comfort Others Through Bereavement, Grief, and Loss
When someone you care about is grieving after a loss, it can be difficult to know what to say or do. You may be afraid of intruding, saying the wrong thing, or making your loved one feel even worse. Or maybe you think there’s little you can do to make things better. But your comfort and support can make all the difference to your loved one’s healing. While you can’t take away the intense pain of their loss, there are many ways to show someone who’s grieving how much you care and to help them through this difficult time.
How to support someone who’s grieving?
The death of a loved one is one of life’s most difficult experiences. The bereaved struggle with many intense and painful emotions, including depression, anger, guilt, and profound sadness. Often, they feel isolated and alone in their grief, but having someone to lean on can help them through the grieving process.
The intense pain and difficult emotions that accompany bereavement can often make people uncomfortable about offering support to someone who’s grieving. You may be unsure what to do or worried about saying the wrong thing at such a difficult time. That’s understandable. But don’t let discomfort prevent you from reaching out to someone who is grieving. Now, more than ever, your loved one needs your support. You don’t need to have answers or give advice or say and do all the right things. The most important thing you can do for a grieving person is to simply be there. It’s your support and caring presence that will help your loved one cope with the pain and gradually begin to heal.
The keys to helping a loved one who’s grieving
- Don’t let fears about saying or doing the wrong thing stop you from reaching out
- Let your grieving loved one know that you’re there to listen
- Understand that everyone grieves differently and for different lengths of time
- Offer to help in practical ways
- Maintain your support after the funeral
Helping a grieving person tip 1: Understand the grieving process
The better your understanding of grief and how it is healed, the better equipped you’ll be to help a bereaved friend or family member:
There is no right or wrong way to grieve. Grief does not always unfold in orderly, predictable stages. It can be an emotional rollercoaster, with unpredictable highs, lows, and setbacks. Everyone grieves differently, so avoid telling your loved one what they “should” be feeling or doing.
Grief may involve extreme emotions and behaviors. Feelings of guilt, anger, despair, and fear are common. A grieving person may yell to the heavens, obsess about the death, lash out at loved ones, or cry for hours on end. Your loved one needs reassurance that what they feel is normal. Don’t judge them or take their grief reactions personally.
There is no set timetable for grieving. For many people, recovery after bereavement takes 18 to 24 months, but for others, the grieving process may be longer or shorter. Don’t pressure your loved one to move on or make them feel like they’ve been grieving too long. This can actually slow the healing process.
Tip 2: Know what to say to someone who’s grieving
While many of us worry about what to say to a grieving person, it’s actually more important to listen. Oftentimes, well-meaning people avoid talking about the death or change the subject when the deceased person is mentioned. But the bereaved need to feel that their loss is acknowledged, it’s not too terrible to talk about, and their loved one won’t be forgotten. By listening compassionately, you can take your cues from the grieving person.
How to talk—and listen—to someone who’s grieving
While you should never try to force someone to open up, it’s important to let your grieving friend or loved one know that you’re there to listen if they want to talk about their loss. Talk candidly about the person who died and don’t steer away from the subject if the deceased’s name comes up. And when it seems appropriate, ask sensitive questions—without being nosy—that invite the grieving person to openly express their feelings. By simply asking, “Do you feel like talking?” you’re letting your loved one know that you’re available to listen.
You can also:
Acknowledge the situation. For example, you could say something as simple as: “I heard that your father died.” By using the word “died” you’ll show that you’re more open to talk about how the grieving person really feels.
Express your concern. For example: “I’m sorry to hear that this happened to you.”
Let the bereaved talk about how their loved one died. People who are grieving may need to tell the story over and over again, sometimes in minute detail. Be patient. Repeating the story is a way of processing and accepting the death. With each retelling, the pain lessens. By listening patiently and compassionately, you’re helping your loved one heal.
Ask how your loved one feels. The emotions of grief can change rapidly so don’t assume you know how the bereaved person feels at any given time. If you’ve gone through a similar loss, share your own experience if you think it would help. Remember, though, that grief is an intensely individual experience. No two people experience it exactly the same way, so don’t claim to “know” what the person is feeling or compare your grief to theirs. Again, put the emphasis on listening instead, and ask your loved one to tell you how they’re feeling.
Accept your loved one’s feelings. Let the grieving person know that it’s okay to cry in front of you, to get angry, or to break down. Don’t try to reason with them over how they should or shouldn’t feel. Grief is a highly emotional experience, so the bereaved need to feel free to express their feelings—no matter how irrational—without fear of judgment, argument, or criticism.
Be genuine in your communication. Don’t try to minimize their loss, provide simplistic solutions, or offer unsolicited advice. It’s far better to just listen to your loved one or simply admit: “I’m not sure what to say, but I want you to know I care.”
Be willing to sit in silence. Don’t press if the grieving person doesn’t feel like talking. Often, comfort for them comes from simply being in your company. If you can’t think of something to say, just offer eye contact, a squeeze of the hand, or a reassuring hug.
Offer your support. Ask what you can do for the grieving person. Offer to help with a specific task, such as helping with funeral arrangements, or just be there to hang out with or as a shoulder to cry on.
Things to avoid saying to someone who’s grieving
“It’s part of God’s plan.” This phrase can make people angry and they often respond with, “What plan? Nobody told me about any plan.”
“Look at what you have to be thankful for.” They know they have things to be thankful for, but right now they are not important.
“He’s in a better place now.” The bereaved may or may not believe this. Keep your beliefs to yourself unless asked.
“This is behind you now; it’s time to get on with your life.” Sometimes the bereaved are resistant to getting on with because they feel this means “forgetting” their loved one. Besides, moving on is much easier said than done. Grief has a mind of its own and works at its own pace.
Statements that begin with “You should” or “You will.” These statements are too directive. Instead you could begin your comments with: “Have you thought about…” or “You might try…”Source: American Hospice Foundation
Tip 3: Offer practical assistance
It is difficult for many grieving people to ask for help. They might feel guilty about receiving so much attention, fear being a burden to others, or simply be too depressed to reach out. A grieving person may not have the energy or motivation to call you when they need something, so instead of saying, “Let me know if there’s anything I can do,” make it easier for them by making specific suggestions. You could say, “I’m going to the market this afternoon. What can I bring you from there?” or “I’ve made beef stew for dinner. When can I come by and bring you some?”
If you’re able, try to be consistent in your offers of assistance. The grieving person will know that you’ll be there for as long as it takes and can look forward to your attentiveness without having to make the additional effort of asking again and again.
There are many practical ways you can help a grieving person. You can offer to:
- Shop for groceries or run errands
- Drop off a casserole or other type of food
- Help with funeral arrangements
- Stay in your loved one’s home to take phone calls and receive guests
- Help with insurance forms or bills
- Take care of housework, such as cleaning or laundry
- Watch their children or pick them up from school
- Drive your loved one wherever they need to go
- Look after your loved one’s pets
- Go with them to a support group meeting
- Accompany them on a walk
- Take them to lunch or a movie
- Share an enjoyable activity (sport, game, puzzle, art project)
Tip 4: Provide ongoing support
Your loved one will continue grieving long after the funeral is over and the cards and flowers have stopped. The length of the grieving process varies from person to person, but often lasts much longer than most people expect. Your bereaved friend or family member may need your support for months or even years.
Continue your support over the long haul. Stay in touch with the grieving person, periodically checking in, dropping by, or sending letters or cards. Once the funeral is over and the other mourners are gone, and the initial shock of the loss has worn off, your support is more valuable than ever.
Don’t make assumptions based on outward appearances. The bereaved person may look fine on the outside, while inside they’re suffering. Avoid saying things like “You are so strong” or “You look so well.” This puts pressure on the person to keep up appearances and to hide their true feelings.
The pain of bereavement may never fully heal. Be sensitive to the fact that life may never feel the same. You don’t “get over” the death of a loved one. The bereaved person may learn to accept the loss. The pain may lessen in intensity over time, but the sadness may never completely go away.
Offer extra support on special days. Certain times and days of the year will be particularly hard for your grieving friend or family member. Holidays, family milestones, birthdays, and anniversaries often reawaken grief. Be sensitive on these occasions. Let the bereaved person know that you’re there for whatever they need.
Tip 5: Watch for warning signs of depression
It’s common for a grieving person to feel depressed, confused, disconnected from others, or like they’re going crazy. But if the bereaved person’s symptoms don’t gradually start to fade—or they get worse with time—this may be a sign that normal grief has evolved into a more serious problem, such as clinical depression.
Encourage the grieving person to seek professional help if you observe any of the following warning signs after the initial grieving period—especially if it’s been over two months since the death.
- Difficulty functioning in daily life
- Extreme focus on the death
- Excessive bitterness, anger, or guilt
- Neglecting personal hygiene
- Alcohol or drug abuse
It can be tricky to bring up your concerns to the bereaved person as you don’t want to be perceived as invasive. Instead of telling the person what to do, try stating your own feelings: “I am troubled by the fact that you aren’t sleeping—perhaps you should look into getting help.”
Take talk of suicide very seriously
If a grieving friend or family member talks about suicide, seek help immediately. Please read Suicide Prevention or call a suicide helpline:
- In the U.S., call 1-800-273-TALK (8255).
- In the UK, call 116 123.
- Or visit IASP for a helpline in your country.
How to comfort a child who’s grieving
Even very young children feel the pain of bereavement, but they learn how to express their grief by watching the adults around them. After a loss—particularly of a sibling or parent—children need support, stability, and honesty. They may also need extra reassurance that they will be cared for and kept safe. As an adult, you can support children through the grieving process by demonstrating that it’s okay to be sad and helping them make sense of the loss.
Answer any questions the child may have as truthfully as you can. Use very simple, honest, and concrete terms when explaining death to a child. Children—especially young children—may blame themselves for what happened and the truth helps them see they are not at fault.
Open communication will smooth the way for a child to express distressing feelings. Because children often express themselves through stories, games, and artwork, encourage this self-expression, and look for clues in those activities about how they are coping.
When you have experienced the loss of a good friend it may be hard to put your feelings into words. You may feel a mixture of emotions all at once and it may be difficult to imagine life without your friend. No matter how hard it is right now, you have to find the courage to go on with your life and begin to accept and cope with your loss.
Grieving is a process, or rather a difficult climb which requires strength, perseverance and endurance. Coping with grief is likened to climbing a challenging mountain. You may not feel equipped to climb your mountain, but all you have to focus on is taking one step at a time.
Each person’s journey is different, yet there are similarities in the terrain that each must cross through. Your journey may feel like an uphill battle, but you can make it through this all while honoring the memory of your friend. Be patient the healing journey takes time. The following are some common places people travel as they begin to heal from loss.
2. The Rough Terrain — Anger
After the shock wears off, you may begin to feel waves of intense emotions, such as fear, guilt, hurt, and sadness. These emotions can feel powerful and overwhelming. In order to deal with the surge of emotions, you may mask them with other emotions like anger. If you find yourself seething mad on your journey — it’s okay.
Eventually, you will work through your feelings, but right now your anger is giving you the energy you need to catapult forward toward healing. Being aware of why you are ready to unleash on everything in your path will help you keep your anger in check. For example, if you notice you have a short fuse, then try to avoid things that push your buttons. With time, you will feel more in control of how you’re feeling, but right now the feelings are raw and need time to mend.
3. Rough Patches — Trying to Find a Fix
This is a tough part of the journey and it can leave you feeling helpless and stuck. You will have to fight the inner voices that play in your mind asking, “what if” and “if only.” These voices serve one purpose: to keep you stuck. When you choose to move forward, be prepared for the voices to grow louder. Don’t listen to them they aren’t helpful. It’s okay to tell yourself “These are just unhelpful thoughts that are holding me back.”
4. The Resting Spot — Deep Sadness
Your journey can be exhausting and there may be times that you want to give up. Don’t. This is the part of the journey that you acknowledge your loss. It’s okay to feel intense sadness, and it’s okay to cry a lot. When you mourn, you are allowing all those pent-up emotions a chance to escape. You don’t have to hold onto them — they need to be released. When you are able to fully grieve, you can get some of the weight off your shoulders and find your second wind to continue the journey.
5. The Summit — Acceptance, but not Forgetting…
It’s been a tough journey, but you’ve come a long way. Along the way, you have learned to persevere. Most importantly, you’ve learned that you are going to be okay. It still hurts, and the memories still play in the background, only now you can think back on those memories and smile. The things you have learned on your journey have helped you grow into a stronger person. One of the most important lessons that can be learned is — life is short and it’s important to treasure those who matter to you most.
Grieving is a process and it can take time to work through a loss. It is common to cycle through many emotions that you thought you had already worked through. You will not slide backward on your journey (even if it feels like it) you can only go forward. You may hit familiar territory and feel like you took a step back, but your ability to work through it the first time will get you through it again. While there may be times that you feel that you are on this journey solo, you are not alone. Many people like yourself have traveled a similar path; reach out and let people help you. Your mountain of grief may not be an easy one to defeat, but it is not impossible.